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 Gjenetika.

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beni



Posts : 30
Join date : 2009-07-05

PostSubject: Gjenetika.   Mon Nov 02, 2009 2:10 pm

Cod. B17012005

Mirmrema te gjitheve!!!Shume prej jush besoj se me kane pare duke shkruajtur gjera rreth kesaj teme por kam si qellim vetem qe informacionet qe kam te dihen nga sa me shume persona dhe shpresoj se nuk do te me gjykoni!!!!

Gjenetika eshte nje shkence qe nuk ka me shume se 100 vjet qe i ka nisjet e veta po edhe pse kaq e re ka zene nje vend mjaft te rendesishem ne jeten tone te perditshme duke filluar qe nga ana mjeksore si psh terapite e semundjeve te ndryshme e deri te perdorimi i gjenetikes ne raste te ndryshme kriminalistike.Ta marresh holle holle, gjenetika eshte nje shkence mikroscopike sepse merret pak a shume me materialin qe ndodhet ne berthamat e qelizave permasat e te cilave shkojne ne te dhjetrat e micronit(10^-7).
Secili nga ne e ka degjuar se ne berthamat e qelizave ka material gjenetik i cili kryen funksione te shumta ne trupin e njeriut.Me miliona operacione cdo sekond kane nevoje per materialin gjenetik.
Ne qofte se do te japim disa numra per trupin e njeriut mund te themi se jemi te perbere nga rreth 65 mije miliarde qeliza dhe secila prej ketyre ka ne berthamat e tyre 1.8 meter ADN.Kjo ADN ka rreth 3 miliard nukleotide.ky material perdoret nga cdo qelize per te jetuar ose te themi me mire per te mbijetuar.
Qelizat e kuqe te gjakur qe e heqin berthamen qe te kene sa me shume hapesire per te ushtruar funksionet e tyre kane nje jetegjatesi rreth 120 dite nga paaftesija per te rinovuar strukturat e veta te brendshme.Cdo qelize qe jeton duhet te kete te njejtin material gjenetik qe te mund te ece perpara.Edhe vdekja e nje qelize me ane te procedurave te ndryshme sic eshte apoptoze ose ndryshe sic quhet ndryshe "vdekje e programuar" ka nevoje per materialin gjenetik.

THIS IS FOR DARKE:The genetic is a new science(nearly 100 year age)but even though it is so young it has taken an important place in our daily life influencing it in every aspect starting from the medicine(terapies of diseases)up to the usage of genetics in crime scene investigation.The genetic is a microscopic science becuose its main object is a tiny strucutre called nucleus inside the cell,whose dimensions go up to 10^-7 meter(micron).
Everyone of us has heard that these nucleus contain the genetic material that executes a lot of functions in the human body.Millions of function performed in every second need its help.and to give some numbers there are nearly 65.000.000.000.000 cells in our body and in every cell there is 1.8 meter of DNA.This DNA is composed of nearly 3 billion nucleotides.This material is used by every cell to live or better say to survive.
The best example are the red blood cells that do not have the nucleus and they have a life of only 120 days becouse they cannot reproduce their proteins in order to live.Every cell in the human body must have the same genetic materila in order to perform its functions and not be considered as a foreign cell and attached by the immunitary system or die itself in a process called apoptosis or in poor words programmed(or self induced) death(self destruction).Bot this is another part of the story that i'm goin to explain....

Nese marrim parasysh qe cdo sekond trupi i njeriut prodhon rreth 2 milion qeliza gjaku dhe se po kaq qeliza shkaterrohen,ose qe jetegjatesia e qelizave te bardha eshte shume i shkurter dhe se here pas here duhet te zevendesohen dhe se cdo sekond trupi i njeriut duhet te jete ne gjendje ti beje balle mikroorganizmave te ndryshem qe mund ta sulmojne dhe se sa dhjetra lloje hormonesh qe duhet te prodhohen cdo sekond qe ta mbajne trupin ne nje ekuiliber te mahnitshem do ta kuptonim me mire se sa rendesi ka ajo strukture e vogel brenda cdo qelize.Ka raste qe mjafton nje gabim ne ato 3 miliard baza,sic ndodh ne disa semundje gjenetike dhe trupi i njeriut mund te shkoje drejt vdekjes.
Keto jane si tip hyrjeje per sa i perket gjerave qe eshte ne gjendje te beje materiali gjenetik ne trupin e njeriut.Ky material gjenetik qe quhet ADN(acidi deoksiribonukleik)ose ARN(acid ribonukleik).Keto dy forma ndryshojne njeri nga tjetri per llojin e sheqerit ose me mire tethemi per nga grupi qe eshte i vendosur te karboni 2 i sheqerit dhe per nga llojet e bazave te azotuara(tek arn ka uracil ne vend te timines).

Even the apoptosis needs the DNA functions to do the process correctly.If we consider that in every second more than 2 million red blood cells are produced and the same amount is detroyed,or that the white blood cells life is really short(some are 7 days,some more and some less)and they have to get replaced continuously and that in every second billion of organisms attach the human body and try to cause diseases,while the body tries to stop this and keep the equilibrium inside(don't forget that there are bacteria in the intestine that are important for the digestion)we can immagine the importance of our DNA and the importance of that small structure in the cell called nucleus.Only 1 mistake in 3 billion of nucleotides is enough to cause mortal diseases like the cystis fibrosis or a kind of anemia where 1 nucleotide is changed(mediterrian anemia)and the person may go toward death.1 mistake and no more is enough.
The things I said up to now are just an introduction to the most amazing structure in our human body that is called DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid)or RNA(ribonucleic acid).These two forms differ one from another just for the structure of the sugar that form the scheleton of the nucleotide or better say only for the group that is attached to the second carbon and for the bases attached(in RNA we have uracil instead of thymine)...
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